According to Wallace F. Smith “Housing finance is a factor of production quite distinct from labour, materials and risk-taking.”   The price of other factors involved in housing construction need to be paid mostly in cash at time they are used. In housing sector finance serves the following vital purposes. Finance is needed for: (a)  Purchase […]

Community Housing

Community housing is social housing assistance delivered by community organisations and local governments. Example of community housing in India are Chawls , Mumbai : Many chawls were built during the nineteenth century and twentieth century. They were built by government or private landlords to accommodate the migrants coming from villages due to the rising employment […]

Slum up-gradation

Slums and squatter settlements Most serious problems of all the cities and town is Slums and squatter settlements It is byproduct of industrialization , rapid urbanization and lack of planning. Migrated people are forced to live in slums encroach upon unused / undeveloped govt. land or disputed land. Slums / squatter settlement are usually occupied […]

Housing affordability : Affordable housing

There are three methodologies adopted internationally to estimate housing affordability:  (i) Expenditure Method or Housing Cost Burden: The ratio of housing expenditure to household income is used to measure affordability. Housing expenditure covers all the costs related to housing including rentals, mortgage repayments, utilities and maintenance costs. Housing units can be classified as affordable if […]

Social Factors affecting Housing

Factors affecting housing types & design are : Life style : Lifestyle measurement based on personal perception of statements focused on activities, interests, and opinions on general or specific topics or conditions. Ceremonies : Griha Pravesh, Diwali ,Holi, Rakhi etc. Caste system : Brahmins. The highest of all the castes, and traditionally priests or teachers, […]

National Housing Policy & CM’s Jan Awas Yojana -2015

The National Urban Housing & Habitat Policy 2007 Focus of the Policy is on affordable urban housing with special emphasis on the urban poor. Role of Housing and provision of basic services to the urban poor has been integrated into the objectives of the Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). Special emphasis has been laid […]


Housing is a basic need of man.  In importance, it is third after food and clothing. Even the Neolithic man who lived between 10,000 and 2000 B.C. built durable habitation like pit dwellings, lake dwellings and beehive huts.  However, its functions increased manifold over the years. Housing means provision of comfortable shelter and such surrounding […]

Khasra : Indian Land record system

In India land is become more valuable with urbanization and industrialization . Numerous document like Khasra, Khatauni, Shajra, Registration document, parwana could refer to the Land record. Due to this improper definition, India has a huge amount of land dispute cases To identify the ownership of particular piece of land Khasra map is used. Khasras […]