Primary Elements Consist of :
- It may describe a line that connects them.
- It may suggest an axis and direction.
- It may be viewed as a segment of a longer path.
- A point indicates a position in space.
A point marks a position in space. Conceptually, it has no length, width or depth, and is therefore static, centralized, directionless.
As the prime element in the vocabulary of form, a point can serve to mark: – the two ends of a line – the intersection of two lines – the meeting of lines at the corner of a plane or volume – the center of a field Although a point theoretically has neither shape nor form, it begins to make its presence felt when placed within a visual field.
At the center of its environment, a point is stable and at rest, organizing surrounding elements about itself and dominating its field. When the point is moved off-center, however, its field becomes more aggressive and begins to compete for visual supremacy. Visual tension is created between the point and its field.
- A Line has length, but no width or depth.
- It will link, join, surround or intersect other visual elements.
- It describes the edges of a plane.
- It articulate the surfaces of a plane.
- A Line creates a extended point with length, direction and position.
Although architectural space exists in three dimensions, it can be linear in form to accommodate the path of movement through a building and link its spaces to one another
Although a line theoretically has only one dimension, it must have some degree of thickness to become visible. It is seen as a line simply because its length dominates its width. The character of a line, whether taut or limp, bold or tentative, graceful or ragged, is determined by our perception of its length- width ratio, its contour, and its degree of continuity. .
At a smaller scale, lines articulate the edges and surfaces of planes and volumes. The lines can be expressed by joints within or between building materials, by frames around window or door openings, or by a structural grid of columns and beams. How these linear elements affect the texture of a surface will depend on their visual weight, spacing, and direction .
A line extended in a direction other than its intrinsic direction becomes a plane. Conceptually, a plane has length and width, but no depth. Shape is the primary identifying characteristic of a plane.
It is determined by the contour of the line forming the edges of a plane. Because our perception of shape can be distorted by perspective foreshortening, we see the true shape of a plane only when view it frontally. The supplementary properties of a plane—its surface color, pattern, and texture—affect its visual weight and stability. In the composition of a visual construction, a plane serves to define the limits or boundaries of a volume.
The low sloping roof planes and broad overhangs are characteristic of the Prairie School of Architecture. A roof plane can extend outward to form overhangs that shield door and widow openings from sun or rain, or continue downward further still to relate itself more closely to the ground plane. In warm climates, it can be elevated to allow cooling breezes to flow across and through the interior spaces of building.
If architecture as a visual art deals specifically with the formation of three-dimensional volumes of mass and space, then the plane should be regarded as a key element in the vocabulary of architectural design.
Frank Lloyd Wright. Reinforced concrete slabs express the horizontality of the floor or roof planes as they cantilever outward from a central core.
A plane extended in a direction other than its intrinsic direction becomes a volume. Conceptually, a volume has three dimensions: length, width and depth. All volumes can be analyzed and understood to consist of: – points or vertices where several planes come together – lines or edges where two planes meet – planes or surfaces which define the limits or boundaries of a volume. Form is the primary identifying characteristic of a volume.
It established by the shapes and interrelationships of the planes that describe the boundaries of the volume.
Plan and Section Space defined by wall, floor, and ceiling or roof planes. Elevation Space displaced by the mass of a building. In architecture, a volume can be seen to be either a portion of space contained and defined by wall, floor, and ceiling or roof planes, or a quantity of space displaced by the mass of building. It is important to perceive this duality, especially when reading orthographic plans, elevations and sections.
As the three-dimensional element in the vocabulary of architectural design, a volume can be either a solid—space displaced by mass—or a void—space contained or enclosed by planes.