Proportion and scale are closely interrelated. Scale alludes to the size of something compared to a reference standard or to the size of something else. Proportion refers to the proper or harmonious relation of one part to another or to the whole.
A proportioning system establishes a consistent set of visual relationships between the parts of a building, as well as between the parts and the whole.
A number of theories of “desirable” proportions have been developed in the course of history. They include; Golden Section(ratio), Classical Orders, Renaissance Theories, Modular, Ken, Anthropometry, and Scale.

#### Golden ratio

Two quantities are in the golden ratio if the ratio of the sum of the quantities to the larger quantity is equal to the ratio of the larger quantity to the smaller one.

The first example of the golden ratio in the average human body is that when the distance between the navel and the foot is taken as 1 unit, the height of a human being is equivalent to 1.618

Some other golden proportions in the average human body are:

• The distance between the finger tip and the elbow / distance between the wrist and the elbow,
• The distance between the shoulder line and the top of the head / head length,
• The distance between the navel and the top of the head
• the distance between the shoulder line and the top of the head
• The distance between the navel and knee / distance between the knee and the end of the foot.

#### Principles of Architecture

Axis

A Line established by two point in space about which form and spaces can be arranged in symmetrical and balanced manner

Symmetry

The balanced distribution and arrangement of equivalent forms and spaces on opposite sides of dividing plane or about a center axis

Hierarchy

The articulation of importance and significance of form or space by its size shape and placement relative to other forms and spaces of organization

Rhythm

Unifying movement characterized by patterned repetition or alteration of formal elements or motifs in same or modified forms

Datum

A line plane or volume that , by its continuity and regularity , serves together , measure and organize a pattern of form and spaces.

Transformation

The principle that an architectural concept or organization can be retained, strengthened and built upon through a series of discrete manipulation and transformations.

#### Axis

INDUCE MOVEMENT

The axis is a linear condition , it has qualities of length and direction and induce movement and views along its path

Termination At Both Ends

Reinforced By Defining Edges

Established By Symmetrical Arrangement