Louis Sullivan

Louis Sullivan

name | Louis henry Sullivan.
lived | 1856-1924.
style | Chicago School
Considered “The Father of Modern Architecture”
“Form follows Function”
Mentor to Frank Lloyd Wright and influence on the PRAIRIE SCHOOL

Louis Sullivan works

Auditorium Building | 1886-1890.Chicago, Illinois USA.
Wainwright Building | 1890-1891.St. Louis, Missouri USA.
Guaranty Building | 1894-1895.Buffalo, New York USA.
Carson, Pirie, Scott and Co. | 1899-1904.Chicago, Illinois USA.
National Farmers' Bank | 1906-1908.Owatonna, Minnesota USA.
Merchant's National Bank | 1913-1914.Grinnell, Iowa USA.
People's Savings and Loan Association Bank | 1919.Sidney, Ohio USA.
Farmers' and Merchants' Union Bank | 1919.Columbus, Wisconsin USA

Chicago School of Architecture

The Chicago School was a school of architects active in Chicago at the turn of the 20th century. They were among the first to promote the new technologies of steel-frame construction in commercial buildings, and developed a spatial aesthetic which co-evolved with, and then came to influence, parallel developments in European Modernism.
While the term Chicago School is widely used to describe buildings in the city during the 1880s and 1890s, this term has been disputed by scholars, in particular in reaction to Carl Condit's 1952 book  The Chicago School of Architecture.

Chicago School of Architecture

One of the distinguishing features of the Chicago School is the use of steel-frame buildings with masonry cladding (usually terra cotta), allowing large plate-glass window areas and limiting the amount of exterior ornamentation. Sometimes elements of neoclassical architecture are used in Chicago School skyscrapers. Many Chicago School skyscrapers contain the three parts of a classical column. The first floor functions as the base, the middle stories, usually with little ornamental detail, act as the shaft of the column, and the last floor or so represent the capital, with more ornamental detail and capped with a cornice.

Chicago School of Architecture

The "Chicago window" originated in this school . It is a three-part window consisting of a large fixed center panel flanked by two smaller double-hung sash windows. The arrangement of windows on the facade typically creates a grid pattern, with some projecting out from the facade forming bay windows. The Chicago window combined the functions of light-gathering and natural ventilation; a single central pane was usually fixed, while the two surrounding panes were operable. These windows were often deployed in bays, known as oriel windows, that projected out over the street.

Auditorium Building

The Auditorium is a heavy, impressive structure externally, and was more striking in its day when buildings of its scale were less common. When completed, it was the tallest building in the city and largest building in the United States.

Auditorium Building

Adler and Sullivan designed a tall structure with load-bearing outer walls, and based the exterior appearance partly on the design of H.H. Richardson's Marshall Field Warehouse, another Chicago landmark.

Auditorium Building Section

The Wainwright Building

1890.101 North 7th Street.St. Louis, Missouri, USA.Louis Sullivan & Dankmar Adler, architects.
   When it was built, the Wainwright Building revolutionized American architecture. The first two stories are unornamented except for the large, deep windows. Uninterrupted piers extend through the next seven stories. Horizontal panels between the piers articulate the building's interior structure. Intertwined ornaments and small round windows form the upper story.

The Wainwright Building

The eleven-storey Wainwright Building represents Sullivan's first attempt at a truly multi-storey format, in which the device of the suppressed transom is used to impart a decidedly vertical emphasis to the building's overall form.
The two-storey base of the classical tripartite composition is faced in fine red sandstone set on a two-foot-high string course of red Missouri granite. While the middle section consists of red brick pilasters with decorated terra cotta spandrels, the top is rendered as a deep overhanging cornice faced in an ornamented terra cotta skin to match the enrichment of the spandrels and the pilasters below.

Guaranty (Prudential ) Building Buffalo, New York, 1894

The Guaranty Building, which is now called the Prudential Building, was designed by Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler, and built in Buffalo, New York.
The massive development of cast iron led to a reduction in price, which allowed many architects to design taller buildings.

Guaranty (Prudential ) Building

Guaranty (Prudential ) Building

The Bradley House

One quality consistent in the spaces of Sullivan's houses from the Charnley House to the Babson House is their insertion in an embracing rectangular prism through which the major and minor axes struggle.
Beginning in 1909 his interior spaces finally freed themselves from this restraining carapace, emerging in a series of cross-shaped plans in the two Bradley House projects and the Bennett House design. These compositions are no less processional, centering on a space just beyond the entrance point, enclosed in thickened poched walls, projecting dramatic axes forward and to each side, manifested externally as juxtaposed volumes.

The Bradley House

Sullivan's walls are thick, the windows deeply inset, and his masses can be marked with cantilevers like those over the porches of the erected Bradley House—not floating in the manner of Wright's Prairie Style but laboring with elaborate brackets to express the work of opening the interior space outward.

National Farmers' Bank

“some of Sullivan's finest work is the National Farmers' Bank. The main banking room is a single cubical space enclosed by a box, indicated by the wide stained-glass lunette windows. The base is of red sandstone, with dark red brick walls. Ornamentation is concentrated in panels, of bronze-green terra cotta, with intricate cast iron escutcheons at the corners; the cornice is simply corbeled brick courses. To the rear is a separate block housing offices and shops, a speculative venture by the bank, but clearly related to the bank in materials and design."
— Leland M. Roth. A Concise History of American Architecture.

National Farmers' Bank

" Sullivan's National Farmers' Bank stands on the corner opposite the park. Massive and stately—68 feet broad and about 53 feet tall—its silhouette and ornamental patterns strike golden section rectangles. Great vaulted windows pierce the deep walls, and a row of dark square windows punctures the base. Strength in concept; surprise and contradiction in detail.
"The great ornamented mass anchors the lines of street facades, bringing sequences of jumbled store fronts and one fine, arcaded office building (Sullivan's also) to a monumental climax."

Merchants National Bank Building

To honor one of the most influential American architects of all time on the sesquicentennial of his birth, the City of Grinnell and Grinnell College will co-sponsor a series of events highlighting Sullivan and his work, including lectures, films, music, and guided tours
As part of the celebration of the 150th anniversary of his birth on Sept. 3, 1856 in Boston, Mass., the tours will focus on the Merchants National Bank building, designed by Sullivan in 1913 and widely regarded as one of his masterpieces.

Entrance from the 1893 Chicago Stock Exchange building

Pirie, Scott, Building

K.A.M. Temple,  .Chicago, . From an old postcard

People's Savings and Loan Association Bank

Farmers and Merchants Union Bank

Farmers and Merchants Union Bank