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Plastic

Types of Plastic



1

Thermoplastics
Reversible in phase by heating and cooling. Solid phase at room temperature and liquid phase at elevated temperature.

2

Thermosets
Irreversible in phase by heating and cooling. Change to liquid phase when heated, then follow with an irreversible exothermic chemical reaction. Remain in solid phase subsequently.

3

Elastomers Elastic in behaviour under load also know as Rubbers.

Thermoplastics

General properties: low melting point, softer, flexible. Typical uses: bottles, food wrappers, toys, …

Examples:

  • Polyethylene (or polythene) : Flexible use in packaging, electrical insulation, milk and water bottles, packaging film
  • Polypropylene: Stiff and hard and coarser then the polyethylene of low density , use carpet fibers, automotive bumpers, microwave containers, prosthetics
  • Polyvinyl chloride (PVC): Rigid ,Tough and elastic to feel, use in electrical cables cover, credit cards, car instrument panels
  • Polystyrene: Soild , glass clear and sparkling , use in disposable spoons, forks, Styrofoam™
  • Acrylics (PMMA: polymethyl methacrylate): Glass clear , somewhat brittle sound when tapped , use in paints, fake fur, plexiglass
  • Polyamide (nylon): high density polythene but smoother to feel use in textiles and fabrics, gears, bushing and washers, bearings
  • PET (polyethylene terephthalate): use in bottles for acidic foods like juices, food trays
  • PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene): use in non-stick coating, Gore-Tex™ (raincoats), dental floss

  • Thermosets

    General properties: more durable, harder, tough, light. Typical uses: automobile parts, construction materials.

    Examples:
  • Malemine formaldehyde (formica ) use in laminates
  • Phenolics ( bakelite) : bottle caps , bonding plywood , glues
  • Unsaturated Polyesters: lacquers, varnishes, boat hulls, furniture
  • Epoxies and Resins: glues, coating of electrical circuits,
  • composites: fiberglass in helicopter blades, boats, …

  • Elastomers

    General properties: these are thermosets, and have rubber-like properties. Typical uses: medical masks, gloves, rubber-substitutes

    Types of Rubber :

    • Natural rubber : It is natural product form rubber tree , The milk form rubber trees called latex is collected at rubber plantations
    • Synthetic rubbers: this is a polymer and it is manufactured by chemical process of polymerization

    Synthetic rubber examples
  • butadiene rubber
  • butyl rubber
  • chloroprene rubber
  • ethylene-propylene rubber
  • isoprene rubber
  • nitrile rubber
  • Polyurethanes : mattress, cushion, insulation, toys
  • Silicones : surgical gloves, applications in joint seals
  • styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) :
  • thermoplastic elastomers

  • Polymerization Of Plastics

    The process of producing resins of plastics is called polymerization. thus polymerization is the process of combining molecules of compounds to form another complex molecule.

  • By addition polymerization :
  • In this process the same molecules are made to form a bigger molecule . Thus , in the preparation of polythene (polythene), ethane , a carbon compound , is passed under pressure into an inert insolvent containing a special catalyst (a Ziegler catalyst named after the inventor of the process) to form a polymer A high density form of ethane called polyethane or polythene with a softening point of 130° C is produced. We are familiar with polythene sheets in our everyday life

  • By condensation polymerization:
  • in this process a large number of identical or different molecules combine and a low molecular substance is removed . For example terylene is a condensation polymer It is synthesized from alcohol ,ethene, glycol and a benzene derivative when heated together , eliminates molecules of water between them and become terylene . Nylon is another example of a condensation polymer .

  • By Co-polymerization:
  • In this process , two or more different monomers are added together to from a polymer . Phenol formaldehyde is produced by reaction of phenol and formaldehyde.


    Silicone

  • Silicones are polymers that include silicon together with carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and sometimes other chemical elements. Some common forms include silicone oil, silicone grease, silicone rubber, and silicone resin
  • Silicones are inert, synthetic compounds with a wide variety of forms and uses. Typically heat-resistant and rubber-like, they are commonly used in cookware, medical applications, sealants, adhesives, lubricants, insulation.
  • COMPANY which manufacture silicone are : Dow Corning ,GE , Dr Fixit

  • Melamine

  • Melamine resin or melamine formaldehyde (also shortened to melamine) is a hard, thermosetting plastic material made from melamine and formaldehyde by polymerization.
  • Melamine resin is the main constituent of high-pressure laminates, such as Formica and Arborite,and of laminate flooring.
  • Melamine-resin tile wall panels can also be used as whiteboards.
  • Melamine resin is used in kitchen utensils and plates (such as Melmac).

  • Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resins

  • Phenol formaldehyde resins (PF) include synthetic thermosetting resins such as obtained by the reaction of phenols with formaldehyde.
  • Phenolic resins are mainly used in the production of circuit boards.
  • They are better known however for the production of molded products including pool balls, laboratory countertops, and as coatings and adhesives.
  • In the form of Bakelite, they are the earliest commercial synthetic resin.


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